Sector Studies in International Leisure


General issues

Film and music





At the end of the year you have to write exam questions on one or more of these sectors. You will be expected to show detailed and up-to-date knowledge. These are all dynamic businesses which are changing all the time and so are frequently in the news. Scan the quality daily and Sunday papers for items on your chosen topics and keep them in a scrapbook or card index. Surf the web and store useful stories on disk

Key questions applicable to each sector

What is the network of organisations involved in getting the finished product to the end-user customer?

Who are the leading organisations who control or dominate the market?

How can a British company survive and prosper in this international market?

How could the British Government help them to do so?

What to look for :


Changes of company ownership, takeovers, mergers, especially if involving foreign or multinational companies.

Current statistics on market share, profits, trends

Examples of British organisations entering overseas markets

Economic benefits of the sector to the country as a whole.

Issues of government policy ( and opposition party policy)

Legal disputes and other controversies


Film and Music Industries

Dominance of American products - causes and extent.

Vertical integration of studios, distributors and retail outlets (eg cinemas)

Integration of software (films, recordings) and hardware (equipment)

What niches does this leave an independent British artist or production company?

Arguments for and against Government/EU controls on the amount of foreign material screened/played. Impact of the recent changes in policy and funding

Links and articles: for market data, US and World try the Recording Industries of America site

For the British film industries
Sony lecture. Sony's current strategies 2003. 'Franchise movies'

Financing a British film 8/3/03 second article

DVDs change the distribution chain for film 20/1/4

Music on-line opportunity or threat? 18/3/03

Bertlesman/BMG : the new Rupert Murdoch? 21/1/02


The technological revolution - digital transmission, fibre-optic cables

Multimedia integration - computers, TV, telephone

Consumer adoption of/ resistance to these innovations.

The effect on demand for programming - with implications for film and sport.

Developing markets for broadcast entertainment in Asia and elsewhere.

The major international players - Murdoch's News Corp, Disney, TimeWarner and others.

Lessons from ITV Digital - don't mess with Rupert!

The future of public-service broadcasting eg BBC

For details of these companies and a critique of their activities see New Internationalist April 2001 pp 18-19

Available online Also try

The future of BBC, ITV companies, Channel Four, BT in these markets. Effects of political policies on their ability to compete. The Communications Bill opening up ITV to foreign ownership.

Effects on public service broadcasting
Government white paper on the communications industries
2/10/00 NTL/Universal link up - a challenge to Sky?
26/5/00 Sony Playstation 2 : the ultimate in integration?

June 2003 M6 - broadcasting as a showcase for selling music
Yahoo as a broadcaster?


The balance of payments in tourism - UK holidays abroad v foreign visitors to UK. PEST factors affecting the short and long-term trends.

Vertical integration between airlines, tour operators and travel agents.

International mergers and alliances in the sector

Role of the state in tourism development, promotion and quality control.

Current and future government policy.

New incoming and outbound markets

Reading: Knowles, T et al (2001) The Globalisation of tourism and hospitality (DH Library 38 KNO)

Consolidation of national airlines while Ryanair continues to grow June 2003

UK tourism inbound and outbound

Tourism industry structure and issues

Balearic Islands eco-tax June 2003

Other Links and articles

Best site for tourism stats



Increasing commercialism in sport - changing balance between spectator, sponsorship, merchandise and TV revenue. Premiership finances

The future model for sponsorship?

Impact of satellite, digital and Pay-Per-View television. Implications of the ITV Digital failure lecture, press comments

Vertical Integration: Murdoch, Berlesconi and their teams

Globalisation: eg Formula 1, European Superleagues . Man Utd/NYY

Relative importance of clubs and national teams in financial and other terms. Conflicts of interest between clubs and national governing body, between elite and grassroots. Please ask if you would like a copy of a paper I have written on this

Arguments for and against employing foreign players in domestic competitions. ie protectionism v free competition. Effects of the Bosman and subsequent EU rulings. Transfer crisis made simple

Does British success at sport matter (economically, socially etc)?

How can success be encouraged?

What role should the government play in this?

Links and articles


It would be advisable to concentrate on two or three sports in depth rather than try to monitor every sport.

Each of the sectors raises issues of International Marketing and of Strategic Marketing Planning. The theories you learn during the year should help you to understand what is happening in the sector, which in turn should help to deepen your grasp of the theory!

I will post any interesting articles I find in the appropriate folders on my website. Please email me any that you notice.

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